Adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin cum să vă îmbogățiți în timp ce vă aflați la case bitcoin comerț curent

Winston Churchill

This is a dialogic view of truth, whose very name adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin its relationality. Michałowski, Teska Both ravines are sufficiently deep with steep sloped especially in the north and east Fig. Unii numesc asta recreere. This emerging twofold global consciousness is not only a creative possibility to enhance the twentyfirst century; it is an absolute necessity if we are to survive. In order to understand the complexity of the cultural situation of Central Europe at the threshold of its La Adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin, one must go back to the time of formation of the local model of civilization of the Iron Age and of formation of cultures that individually adapted the Hallstatt cultural model. There were two veils, actually: the black screen, which covered the represented event, and the moving text, which took over the role of the cinematic narration of the missing images.

B5 Studio is an independent venue for contemporary art in TîrguMureø, resulted from the artist József Bartha turning his personal studio, ininto an exhibition space for the ARTeast Foundation. This initiative aims to integrate the artistic life in the area into the broader context of European life and artistic scenes, but also has a teaching side, that of forming a contemporary art public in Tîrgu-Mureø. The most recent project of the ARTeast Foundation which took place at the B5 Studio is Reconectare [Reconnecting] and it includes artists related in one way or another to Tîrgu-Mureø born, settled or who received an education herenow activating elsewhere. Dénes Miklósi exhibition breathes a adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin air, especially the information explicitly provided which we already accustomed to from his prior projects1the space being formally ruled by a static image projected on the wall and, oppositely, by a large gravitational map. The Events of adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin Week — a title borrowed from a movie once found by the artist — is important since it provides us with the cum sa faci bani de acasa gratuit moldova, according to which we should to read the exhibition as a fragment of the broader action of Dénes Miklósi, a fragment which, on its turn, lacks some pieces. This is adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin trap which the public can walk in, because the missing pieces are not important.

Dénes is less interested in the rounded image of the puzzle: both the film and the Etna Volcano emblem are objects found by the artists, probably no matter when and where, but which can be thought of having their own history, which is more or less insignificant. The impossibility of archaeology and thus of knowing this insignificant story of the adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin are the very material used in the present case. Any other thing in the clippings created this way is subtracted from the eyes of the public. Many of the artists. Orice altceva din decupajele astfel realizate e sustras privirii publicului.

Pînæ la urmæ, masa rotundæ nu a mai avut loc, iar drept urmare lucrærile expuse capætæ, în forma aceasta, caracterul unui vîrf de aisberg. Not only that an artistic gesture gained a particular dissemination, but a network was thus created, a communion between the East European artists. A minimal action, but, in the context of that time, using that stamp of an unknown significance and provenience, parallel to that of the official mail services, was the necessary and sufficient extra needed to detour this common act towards an artistic gesture. The second aspect of the exhibition is the image of a gravitational map, a map acquired from a specialized company, which includes the Black Sea and the Central Europe. With the explicit, analytic coordinates of its legend lacking, it presents to us as an abstract graphical image: in fact, it is an iconic undetermined photogram of reality, serving to the enigmatic evocation of some precise aspects of its non existence.

The magnetic intensities, just like the little histories, exist, even though the majority of us ignore them or do not give them any importance. Equipotential surface [De ce copiii maghiari picæ examenele la limba românæ? We feel intensely this subliminal contradiction and tension in the exhibition, which is also part of the subtle calculation — adapted to approach the unknown adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin the familiar — proposed by the artist. The weight of the works of Dénes Miklósi, both in the sense of a difficult access to them and the consistence which they take on, once their resistance surmounted, consists not only in the attempt to reveal this unnoticed presences, but also in the subtle parsimonious way and the maximum discretion in which he catches complex social mechanisms. Translated by Alex Moldovan. Notes: 1. Romanian artists, where not the only ones, enthusiastically rushing to get involved in such events perceived as the only form of freely communicating with other cultural and artistic areas.

This part of the project was initially exhibited as an independent work in the group exhibition GPS — Unknown Scene, 12—25 October NovemberErnst Museum, Budapest, under the title Miért buknak meg a magyar gyermekek románból? Equipotential surface [Why do Hungarian children flunk their Romanian language exams? Equipotential surface], the artist using the same logic of putting together a natural and a social reality. The first part of the title is taken from a specialized article denouncing the pedagogical mistakes imposed in teaching the Romanian language by the minorities in public schools. Center and their guests, OctoberTimiøoara. Arta ca metodologie Interviu cu grupul H. Printre proiectele desfæøurate de H. They work together as H. They are interested in topics ranging from knowledge production and re writing histories to gender issues in global capitalist times, all these in the context of working in various collaborations with persons and groups with different backgrounds. Among the projects carried out by H. What reactions have you received during and after the completion of the project? Art critic and curator, she is running the NGO E-cart. Un sprijin important. We thought this space as a demonstration that there are adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin.

The reactions received about this project were diverse. During the project and after its completion we and our collaborators tried to answer questions raised by the public, by the media, by colleagues from the art world, by people we knew, etc, questions regarding the necessity of such a project and the legitimacy of the topics approached. So we saw these questions as starting points for an important and necessary discussion. On the other hand, there were also positive reactions again from the public, the adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin, colleague from the art world, people we knew, etc. There were reactions from those who have seen this space as a place where, even though temporarily, a break in the pre-established order occurs. It was very encouraging for us to talk to people who entered the space to attend events, to browse through the archive or just to talk and who told us how necessary the existence of such a space physical or not seems, where one could talk about the fact that the reality we live in, based on an ideology of profit, is not unavoidable and that there are alternatives. Can you give us a brief account of the overall climate of these meetings in the context of an exaggerated security and overzealousness on the part of the Romanian authorities? Have you met again some of the Project Space participants? Given the circumstances, activists from Romania and other states have rented a space where, for a week 28 March — 5 Aprilthey planned to organize different workshops, film projections, presentations, etc, as a form of peaceful protest against the policies used by NATO.

The saddest part is the fact that the media, in articles and reports broadcasted weeks before the summit started, have made this oppressive action of the authorities look like a normal security sistem de robot de tranzacționare bitcoin. From the 1st, when we reached Bucharest, and until the 5th, when we left for Timiøoara, we felt like living in a parallel world, where citizen rights are being suspended and any abuse from the authorities is possible. An important support came from Emil Moise another Project Space guestwith whom we maintained an almost permanent telephone contact throughout the day of April 2nd the day when the Gendarmerie broke abusively into the rented space and held into custody all the persons who were there at the time and who filed a complaint at the Prosecution of the High Court of Cassation and Justice against the Romanian Gendarmerie and the Romanian Police for the abuses adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin made those days. Can you give us a broader definition of the starting points for this tranzactioneaza astfel profitul and at the same time explain the whole title of the project: Feminisms: Histories, Free Spaces, Participative Democracy, Economical Justice? On the other side, in recent history, as a condition for the integration in the European Union, Romania has adopted a series of genderrelated laws.

Although, of course, the adoption of such legislation is a very important step and although these laws may prove very useful to those who cum să te îmbogățești cu criptomonede cumpără scăzut the means to use them, a series of sistem de robot de tranzacționare bitcoin with an important gender-related content such as precariousness, poverty, migration, which result directly in violence and discrimination, are not covered by these laws.

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How should we relate to the post-communist silence regarding feminism and the role of women in the communist period, to the necessity of an objective analysis of them? How could one use the feminist strategies and perspectives as a way of analyzing the privileges and power relations which global capitalism is structured on? What relation does occur between patriarchate and capitalism? Cum ne raportæm la tæcerea postcomunistæ legatæ de feminism øi rolurile femeilor din perioada comunistæ, la necesitatea unei analize obiective a acestora? Care este legætura dintre patriarhat øi capitalism? În ce mæsuræ acest public s-a schimbat? Primul public pe care l-am avut au fost colegii adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin din facultate, pe care îi invitam sæ discutæm despre artæ, despre ce ar trebui sæ fie arta. Aceastæ perspectivæ s-a schimbat în momentul în care am început sæ privim lucrurile mai în ansamblu. To what degree has this public changed? If the topics you approach now have another level of urgency, your practice and your tactics are pretty much the same, based on dialog and involvement. You are now being seen more as a group of social and cultural activism than as an artistic group and does this difference matter? Do you think that the social responsibility of the artist implies the departure from.

Have you thought about such delimitations when you conceived and set the physical space where adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin project takes place? Lately, we have been witnessing a re-actualization of various feminist issues and, sistem de robot de tranzacționare bitcoin the same time, an institutionalization and even a classicization of the artistic feminism. Could you identify some of the methods inspiring you and which you consider to be important? Adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin first public consisted in our colleagues at the faculty, whom we used to invite to talk about art, what sistem de robot de tranzacționare bitcoin should be about. These questions related so closely to the means of making art because at the time, right after the graduation, the fracture between art and society seemed to us a natural attribute of art.

This perspective has changed when we started to see things more holistically. If you actually start relating to the context you live in, if what happens to you and what you feel becomes a topic, if the others count, too, then the discussion no longer regards only you as an artist and your possibilities, but becomes a discussion about yourself as a citizen and your possibilities. Felul în care am conceput proiectul Feminisme se bazeazæ mult pe felul acesta de raportare la public; am încercat sæ facem vizibil acest caracter flexibil øi fluid inclusiv în modul în care am conceput identitatea vizualæ a proiectului. Consideræm cæ strategiile artistice pot fi folosite pentru o formæ de activism cultural. Legat de acest lucru, de munca în colaborare, am putea sæ vorbim øi de modelele care ne inspiræ. Credem cæ nevoia abordærii problematicilor feministe a fost øi este mereu actualæ oriunde în lume. În acest sens, modelele care ne inspiræ nu vin în mod necesar doar din sfera artei. Cu o parte. An intermediary phase in our developing relation to art and its public was the project About Art and the Ways We Look at the World, a manual talking about art, but without simply addressing those within the field. This way, not only has the public became more diverse, but, in fact, the possibility of an actual collaboration with those we call the public has been opened, as we become, in our turn, the public for the topics they bring into discussion.

The way we conceived the project Feminisms is very much based on this kind of approaching the public and we also tried to render visible this flexible and fluid character in the way we conceived the visual identity of the tranzactionare optiuni binare. Even though we had a pre-established plan of events for the 10 months during which the project space will be functioning, this is nevertheless a plan in progress and this is adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin we also wanted to make visible in the website design, in the invitations, etc, and especially in the way we set the physical space for the project. The spatial elements do not create a fixed structure; they are modules changing their destination according to the needs and which would also prove useful in other locations. Apart from its various practical functions, we conceived the space as something more than a neutral framework for the public events or informal meetings, as a form relating itself to ideas such as, for instance, the fluidity of the borders between public and private. We think it is very important to find ways in which art, although many times is appropriated partially or completely by the neo-liberal system, may still be used as a self-reflexive and honest tool of critique and analysis. We think that artistic strategies may be used as a form of cultural activism. Photo: H. In this respect, we could also talk about the models which inspire us in our collaborative work.

We think that the need to approach feminist issues was and still is always present throughout the world. In this respect, the models inspiring us are not necessarily from the art field. They are diverse and come from various fields, they are all those questions, actions, approaches, practices which challenge our prejudices, which broaden our perspectives, activate our creativity and our courage to think that it is possible to change a compelling situation. You have already worked in Bucharest with some of these participants — can you already talk about continuity and about fruitful collaboration on the long term? The fact that there are still people and groups with whom we have a continuous bond in time, which materializes in various other discussions, encounters, projects, friendships is a great source of energy and inspiration for us. It is probably, keeping an eye on what happens in the world, the most difficult thing — to think that there is a point of return and that the possibility of change depends on everyone of us, to think that the way we choose to live our individual lives and our everyday actions can impact on a wider change, not to give up imagining possible spaces outside the existent norms and not to lose hope that these spaces could be someday accessible to everyone.

In parallel, we work on a publication which, apart from the space-related events, will reflect different feminist positions and practices in Romania and abroad, which are relevant for a more nuanced understanding of the issues. Thus, during the months after completing the work within the physical space of the project, our main focus will be on editing the publication. At the same time, the topics and the practices of the project will not exhaust once it is completed, but will surely continue to be a constant of our work. The biennial curator, Dóra Hegyi Hungary brought two sets of values into discussion: on one side, art closely related to the market, on the other side, some alternative models which come out as a result of the gift economy.

Thus, Periferic 8 raised some stringent questions related to the present economic mutations, but in a rather safe manner, leaving no room for radical critical sistem de robot de tranzacționare bitcoin. The curator and the organizers sought to dispose of yet another of the many veils draping the mythology of the art groups raised to a sacerdotal value, which indulge themselves in absolutist self-definitions especially in Romania and even more so in Iaøi, where art continues to be seen in anachronistic terms. While at the previous editions the social and economical relations determined by Iaøi topography and history have been explored in works dealing directly with the local context, this year few of the projects of the approximately 22 international artists were closely related to the city. Periferic 8 tended to bring important names to Iaøi, such as Joseph Beuys and Félix Gozález-Torres, an inspired choice for the illustration of the biennial concept, tranzacționați bitcoin ethereum și litecoin tranzacționare în valută, at the same time, calls for a meditation on the necessity of an institutional corpus of autochthonous contemporary art. Pe lîngæ latura didacticæ pe care o impune, de a lucra cu aceøti copii explicîndu-le principiile artei conceptuale, curatorul a reuøit sæ abordeze problematica artei ca limbaj adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin, dar øi pe cea a receptærii, de cætre public, a unui produs artistic decontextualizat.

This time it was about two ambitious projects of creative mediation for pupils and students, but also for the wider public, consisting in conferences, debates, workshops, guided tours which took place on the whole duration of the biennial.

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A studio for artistic practices and debates has been created, with a very consistent and varied program during the first week, where artists, professors, art theoreticians and activists have been invited to the Sports Hall and the Faculty of Architecture. This space was used by the adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin Guillaume Désanges to present his video installation, drawings and photographic projections, the result of the experimental workshop the history of famous performances, starting with the 60s, rewritten in a gesticulatory manner as adaptations with the 8 year old pupils of an elementary school in Iaøi.

Apart from the didactic aspect it engages, that of working with these children and explaining the principles of conceptual art to them, the curator has managed to approach adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin issue of art as an international language, but also that of the reception of a de-contextualized artistic product by the public. It was expected that Periferic included at least one work related. Brînza fæcutæ de oier nu mai poate fi vîndutæ legal øi echitabil sau folositæ în procesul economic arhaic de troc. Este capitalismul singura salvare pentru statele foste comuniste? Acelaøi subiect a fost tratat de An Artist Who Cannot Speak English Is No Artist [Un artist care nu øtie vorbi engleza nu este artist] — litere cusute pe o fîøie de material de culoare roz sugerînd un steag, una dintre cele trei lucræri adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin ale. This work with multiple valences marks out the lack in Iaøi of a platform for those interested in approaching contemporary dance.

The concept of a free market where everything, if properly directed, may be presented as a gift, has entered Romania recently, along with oportunități de a face bani bitcoin major themes of globalization. But this should not stop us wonder: is the recent integration into the European Union a gift or does it create a situation of compromise? The cheese made by the sheep breeder can no longer be sold legally or conveniently or used in the archaic economical process of barter. What do we lose by uncritically embracing Western values? Is capitalism the only chance for the former communist countries? The work also investigates the distances between the two Moldavian regions which were imposed by the different economic and politic situations, as Another exhibition space was the Sports Hall of the Art Faculty, once a horse stable, the former condition of which was reactivated by chance: one day during the biennial, at the building entrance one could see a horse and a carriage tied to the hand rail.

A situation suggestive, in fact, for the context in which the biennial had to develop. Intitulatæ Geopoetica —15, lucrarea reprezenta douæ femei în costume populare ruseøti care tæiau varzæ pe fundalul unui portret înræmat al lui Jules Vernes. The work entitled Geopoetica — 15 presented two women wearing Russian folk costumes slicing cabbage with the framed portrait of Jules Verne in the background. The work Unguarded Money consists in a photograph of one of the boxes placed all over Budapest for a public collection of pârghie de tranzacționare a conturilor sua meant to help the relatives of those who died during the revolution.

The action was a success and large sums of money were collected. Unguarded Money has all the ingredients needed to illustrate, in accordance to Nicolas Bourriaud, the influent theory of the relational aesthetics from the mid 90s, according to which the functionality of the artistic object is more important than contemplation, the plurality and the involvement of the viewer are being encouraged and the collective author is no longer seen as a curiosity. Conforming to the concept of the biennial, the relationships between the plays of social mechanisms and those of the political strategies meant to exercise a control on visual arts are being synthesized and explored by CCCK The Center for Adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin and Context Kiev as an exhibition in exhibition. In the same train of thought, one should say that the film created by the curator Hila Peleg, A Crime against Artdocumenting a performance wherein known names of the international art life played different parts in a trial against the abusive way of exploiting the artistic system for the benefit of personal image. Through embracing a critical stance towards adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin artistic and curatorial practices, the film is in fact meant to reaffirm the position of the participants, revealing once more the mechanism which compromise, but also activate the ascension in the world of art. The Casa Pogor Museum, the third exhibition space, which during the 19th century hosted the literary society Junimea, has invited the artist Dora García with a sculpture made out of her favorite books translated into Romanian, followed by a public debate with the participation of students from different Iaøi faculties.

And since books are often used as a gift, the work questions the conceptual influence which the universal literature translated into Romanian had before and right after A novel project for Iaøi was the temporary architectural structure Info Point placed in front of the A. Cuza University and which only. Notæ: 1. Conceived by the architect Markus Bader, the pavilion has both functional and metaphorical implications, appealing to the need for public spaces. During Periferic 8, the Info Point hosted projections of video works created by Adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin artists, two concerts held by a local DJ and a VJ, but also an information office related to the biennial. So, the event in Iaøi dialogued with the public, co-opted it and kept alive its interest in an area, that of the contemporary visual arts, which the local community is less used to. Starting with the innocent gesture of making a gift, the works exhibited talked about the economies which it imposes and implies in a domino-like system, by introducing in a subtle and haltingly way the idea of compromise, not quite visible, however, when first visiting the adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin spaces. Adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin øi teritoriul BB3.

Stickerele BB3 au împînzit oraøul încæ din toamna trecutæ øi pot fi øi acum væzute, websiteul BB este unul extrem de profesionist tot în raportul final se vorbeøte despre un numær de BB foloseøte instrumentele øi structura unui eveniment de mare amploare, chiar øi prin modul în care îøi evalueazæ rezultatele. Totuøi, Bienala Bucureøtiului ræmîne încæ una micæ, de niøæ. Asta nu înseamnæ cæ organizatorii nu reuøesc, încet, încet, ceea ce adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin propus. Being Here: Mapping the Contemporary.

  1. ETF-urile au fost create pentru prima dată în în Statele Unite.
  2. ETF-urile au explodat în popularitate în Statele Unite, investitorii căutând alternative la fondurile mutuale.

On the very closing day, the organizers, Ræzvan Ion and Eugen Rædescu issued a press release, a final report in which they talked about the unprecedented success of the present edition, the much more consistent media attention paid to it, the fact that the number of visitors doubled compared to the precedent edition, reaching 51, persons. An all too optimistic and easily questionable figure, if we consider the fact that the entrance was free — thus making it more difficult to sistem de robot de tranzacționare bitcoin the visitors — and that there were four exhibiting spaces and a person has visited at least one of them.

This figure continues, on the other side, the statement of the Bucharest Biennale1 as part of a coherent plan which the two organizers pursue each time. The visibility of the BB is incontestable — Ræzvan Ion and Eugen Rædescu really invest in promotion and do rely on it; they are all too present and active in everything pertaining to the Romanian art world and its meeting places, be them real or virtual. The BB3 stickers had already invaded the city last autumn and they are still present, the BB web-site is highly professional the final report also talks about some 30, site visitors from 73 countries, during the event and it is amazing that, less than a month from the closing of the BB3, the home page of adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin BB has already presented a new chapter: BB4 — with a new concept, Handlung: About the Production of Possibilities and a curator, Felix Vogel, who, being just 23, will probably be the youngest curator in the international history of biennials. The BB uses the instruments and the structure of adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin large scale event even in evaluating its results.

Nevertheless, the Bucharest Biennale is still a small or a niche biennial.

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Reading about the BB3 and attending it, it clearly comes to the fore that the organizers attempt this continuous approach of the contemporary art public by creating, for example, some focus. On the existing background, BB is still an event meant for very few. To be successful due to a contemporary art event or at least to succeed in acquiring a certain normalization in attending contemporary art in the society you place yourself in is an intricate and long formative process, and more so in an eastern space like Romania and Bucharest.

The map intervenes into territory. That is because, trying to define the extensive territory of the biennials, we could say that these are mappings of the space which produces them, maps adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin the contemporary world, inter-maps of equally the present artistic, social and political life, intercepts of present societies. The biennials have the capacity to draw a society, to mark it, to define its present state of affairs. Pe fundalul existent, BB este încæ o manifestare destinatæ unui cerc restrîns. Harta intervine în teritoriu. Bienalele sînt cele care au capacitatea sæ deseneze o societate, adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin o marcheze, sæ defineascæ starea de lucruri prezentæ.

A doua. Mission accomplished. The São Paulo Biennale case is emblematic for a pathological international state of this phenomenon. The text of the two curators of the São Paulo Biennale performs a critical excurs, in just a few pages, on the phenomenon of contemporary art globazization. How does it position itself? It follows exactly the wiser advice of the São Paulo Biennale through an extremely actual and comprehensive topic, maybe the most comprehensive for now, within an emergent space, unmapped that is uncoded yet, as the Romanian one is. The spectacular of the contemporary world, a world made out of charts and networks, a world reduced and highly simplified through different techniques and focusing on certain aspects. At the same time, it is a world infinitely reduplicated, arborescent, open, demountable, rhizomatic. It is the world map looked at exhaustively and successfully exhausted: the BB3 has presented not only artists projects, but also complex maps created by organizations interested in various networks and relationships at a planetary level and massive world atlases.

We can only abide on several projects, as their number is far too large, making the act of mapping a compulsive, excessive one. Obiective îndeplinite. Textul celor doi curatori ai Bienalei de la São Paulo face un excurs critic, în doar cîteva pagini, asupra fenomenului globalizærii artei contemporane. Josh On TheyRule. În acelaøi timp, o lume reduplicatæ la infinit, arborescentæ, deschisæ, demontabilæ, rizomaticæ.

Nu ne putem opri decît asupra cîtorva proiecte, numærul lor fiind mult mai mare øi fæcînd din actul cartografierii unul compulsiv, excesiv. De la Atlasul metropolitan adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin la amplele proiecte TheyRule. Descoperirea obiectelor-intrus sau care ajung sæ se confunde cu exponatele te transformæ în detectivul uneori confuz al celor mai stranii forme adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin.

The Map, the Archive, the Collection The already known project of Lia Perjovschi, Globe Collection Unlimited, — Today, the collection of more than 1, objects of the form or inscribed with the image adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin the planet, strewn in the Geology Museum, transforms the visitor into the player of a performance cum să tranzacționați opțiunile bitcoin him being ready for it.

Discovering the intruder-objects adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin those who end by being mistaken for the exhibits turns you into a detective, sometimes confuse, of the strangest contemporary forms. Mikael Lundberg creates Lifeline, five years in the life of the artist, followed day by day, captured with the help of a GPS, a route which becomes repetitive and monotonous, reduced to a scheme. Lia Perjovschi Globe Collection, installation of different objects imprinted with globes, dimensions variable, — today, courtesy the artist, photo: Alexandra Mihalcea. Guernica, Hiroshima, Bagdad, New York. Cînd Pæmîntul este cartografiat, invizibil, din cer pentru a fi distrus, harta supremæ, ultimæ, este cea a cerului redat cosmosului. Harta ca deteritorializare. Deleuze øi F. Guattari, Mille plateaux, Paris, Minuit,p. When the Earth is being invisibly mapped from the sky in order to be destroyed, the supreme, the ultimate map is that of the sky given back to the cosmos.

The map as deterritorialization. Adrian Matei Hygienic, toilet paper manual printed, metal and ceramic support, 15,5 × 11 × 7 cm,courtesy the artist. Deleuze and F. BB3 leaves behind both a collection of critical texts built around the concept of map and of maps and artistic projects of mapping visible in Pavilion, vols. Kristine Stiles, States of Mind. Existæ momente cînd rutina e perturbatæ, iar reflexele obiønuite cu care descompunem analitic o lucrare se clatinæ. În felul acesta, povestea e a lui, dar lucrærile sînt cele ale personajelor, cæci Starling îøi asumæ rolul celui care documenteazæ, aproape cæ retrægîndu-se în umbræ. Înainte de toate însæ, el invitæ øi un maharajah, care este cel mai mare curator øi protector al artelor din toate timpurile. Lucrarea însæøi nu e legatæ de adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin material anume. Spiritul povestirii povestirilor desfæøurate este elementul îndeajuns de puternic pentru a pætrunde obiecte øi clædiri, refluînd liber dintr-un material în altul. Træieøte øi lucreazæ la Budapesta. She lives and works in Budapest. This is more so when, passing through the periodical exhibition organized by the Ludwig Museum, we realize that it is not easy to asses what exactly the work is, without mentioning the difficulties raised by the determination of its authors. We looked on the poster and the author seems to be Simon Starling, 42, an artist rewarded with the Turner Prize, but none of the objects exhibited are his immediate creation.

And since he remains tranzactionare de criptomonedele in 2021 on these first and fundamental questions, the viewer who wants to get wise and who is forced by these ambiguities to stay humble loses any interest in being critical. In the silence released instead of the critique, a story thread begins to develop bifurcating and interweaving with the threads of other stories. Telling stories is the most wonderful thing, especially if the fairytale takes us back into the past and to exotic landscapes, if there is cel mai bun robot valutar gratuit ea filthy rich Prince Charming and his exquisitely beautiful lover, for the love of whom her lover man starts building an enchanted palace. Thus, the story is his, but the works adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin to the characters, as Starling takes on the documenting, withdrawing almost completely. For example, such is the case when he invites a sculptor, two architects, three movie directors and, along them, various designers and photographs to be co-authors.

But, first of all, he also invites a maharajah, who is the greatest curator and protector of arts in history. As a result, Three Birds, Seven Stories is not so much a work of art kept intact within the sterile medium of the museum, but a piece of the very quotidian, of the life weave, which, once placed into the space of the exhibition hall, manages to build a bridge over the two worlds. The work itself does not have anything to do with any particular material. The spirit of the developing story stories is a sufficiently. Conexiunea nu e logicæ, ci, în nemijlocirea ei, ea e mai curînd poeticæ, sistemul foietajului de asocieri care se naøte astfel e modelat doar de accidentele fanteziei utilizatorului øi ale mînuirii mouse-ului. Sæ vedem, în fine, povestirea însæøi. Povestitorul, Simon Starling, a studiat la Glasgow; din anul a træit la Berlin øi Glasgow, dar a început sæ petreacæ tot mai mult timp øi la Copenhaga, fiind totodatæ profesor la Stadelschule din Frankfurt. Putem afla de aici cæ Ráo Hólkár Bahadur, care a fost, pînæ însuveranul a 1. Starling makes the buildings fly in time and space: works which are far away one from another and people at great distances one from another reunite, surpassing continents and decades.

While watching this exhibition, we feel the same spiritual joy which is felt by the compulsory internaut while surfing, when, after pressing buttons completely by accident, a new page opens up and he consequently finds himself into an altogether new world, tied to the universe of the web page through a tiny digital shortcut. The information mass developing before our eyes is being turned into an artwork not only by the weaving story, but also by a unitary formal language. Let us finally consider the story as such. He has received the Turner Prize infor the work Shedboatshed, whose conception already reveals the compositional method of the present exhibition. For that action, he disassembled a hut and used the pieces adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin obtained to build a boat, with which he navigated adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin the River Rhine to Basel, where he rebuilt the adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin, within a museum.

For Starling, the story told in Budapest started while exhibiting in Turin, when accidentally he ran over the wedding photograph of the Indian maharajah Jasvant Ráo Hólkár Bahadur — and thus found someone who, in his turn, dreamed about fairytales, only it was eighty years ago. Those already looking for bifurcations and additions should visit his Geocities web page. Mai tîrziu, el cumpærase øi versiunile fæcute din marmuræ albæ øi neagræ ale acestei lucræri.

De parcæ ar fi fost uitate de niøte OZN-uri pe podeaua muzeului. Here, we can find out that Rao Holkar Bahadur, who until was the leader of 1, subjects in Indore and who was organized the first tiger hunting trip at the age of eleven and who was also a brilliant shooter who, during a competition, gained the maximum of 78 points was an inborn artist and vividly supported the artists he encountered during his Oxford studies, among which was the sculptor Constantin Brancusi, of Romanian origin. The study of the European modernism made him undertake, at the age of 21, a project of grand proportions: under the aegis of Gesamtkunstwerk, he commissioned a palace to the young architect Eckhart Muthesius, the son of the renowned Hermann Muthesius; the palace was populated with the works of the most famous Cel mai bun tranzacționare bitcoin citează designers — being worth about four million dollars.

The maharajah could even be regarded as a precursory of Starling, because by sensing the spirituality carried by certain objects he spared no money and no efforts to transport them to his country. He had decided that he would artificially transpose the spirituality of the European modernism in India: the cold functionalism, as well as the idealism which he found in the elementary, purified geometrical forms. The European culture has impregnated the tranzactionare de criptomonedele in 2021 of the maharajah and his family, but of course, India has influenced, in its turn, the great work. The decorative character of Indian art has been accepted by Muthesius among his instruments of artistic expression, thus enriching adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin straight lines of modernism.

The artist also had to reach a compromise with the local clime; within the exhibition, one can see the retouched photos in which he had erased the pointy roof, which was not in harmony with his artistic principles, but which he had to build because of the weather. This was the first building in India which had an air conditioner; led by the intellectual joy stirred by the little useless information, all the exhibition brochures mention the fact that the apparatus was put into operation by the plumber Heinz Riefenstahl, the younger brother of Leni Riefenstahl, the director made famous by her movies paying homage to Hitler.

ETF Pentru Începători Ghid Complet des Exchange-Traded Funds Thin-section analysis can provide only very general in- formation about the matrix owing to the resolution of the microscope, the size of the clay minerals making up the plastic part of the body and the fact that they undergo transformation when fired.

We can picture the palace and the furniture — modern, round tables, chairs with straight lines, the bar decorated with chrome rods — from the photographs taken by the architect himself and by Emil Leitner. I have wandered the exhibition in vain looking for the three birds promised in the title. I knew that, inthe maharajah had bought from a Parisian art dealer the Bird in Space, a work of Brancusi famous ever since. Later, he also bought the white and black marble versions of this work. Brancusi had made a total of sixteen variations on the same theme, seven out of marble, and seven out of bronze. Instead of the birds taking off and disappearing, what we are offered in space is the possibility of the projection of a marble bird. Perhaps adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin most beautiful collection of objects in the exhibition consists in these three marble blocks apparently unworkable — a black and neat one, an interveined Indian one and an Italian white marble —, which offer a completely unlikely image, almost from another world. Even the material itself is marvelous: the Belgian black marble of a miraculous purity, out of which Brancusi had sculpted the various versions of the Bird in Space, has been used quite often during the Renaissance, in Firenze, but it also appears in the intarsia of the Taj Mahal.

The mystery consists not in the material, but in the Compaq nk computer, which is also placed in the exhibition, respectively in the software maintaining the scanning and the digitalization of the information, as well as cfd brokeri de tranzacționare românia guiding of a milling machine forex arbitraj ea the help of which a natural crack in one of the marble block may be copied inch by inch to another block. It is as if the massive stone has been copy-pasted from one corner of the hall to another. In this city he found an exhibition space worthy adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin his work, Fetta di Polenta, the House of Polenta in Turin, built by Alessandro Antonelli on via Giulia di Barolo, inone hundred years before the palace ordered by the maharajah was finished. This is how the spirituality adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin the maharajah returned to Europe; the story which imbues the Italian gallery takes it from here. The effect is so strong that two years later, when Starling exhibits at the Ludwig Museum, along with the work, he also teleports to Budapest the exhibition stage.

The fifth floor built is almost the shadow, the ideal occurrence of the original. Due to the artificial lighting of the reflector placed outside, the structure of the windows and balconies is being projected on the walls, fulfilling the geometry of the photography exhibited within the replica. Temporal layers are being projected one over another: the replica of a building makes way for the photographs of a palace built in In fact, Ráo Hólkár Bahadur was only 13 when a young girl and her boyfriend, adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin used to be a movie director, wrote a similar story in Germany, inentitled The Eschnapur Tiger — The Hindu Grave.

In the script imagined by Thea von Harbou. Sub acest chip s-a întors spiritualitatea maharajahului în Europa; povestea care impregneazæ galeria italianæ continuæ din punctul acesta. Planuri de timp se proiecteazæ unele peste altele: macheta din a unei clædiri din dæ loc fotografiilor unui palat construit adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin În realitate, Ráo Hólkár Bahadur avea doar 13 ani, cînd o tînæræ fatæ, împreunæ cu iubitul ei care fusese regizor de film, a scris o poveste similaræ în Germania, încu titlul Tigrul din Eschnapur — Mormîntul hindus. Filmul a fost pus pe marele ecran în trei versiuni diferite, Joe May adam sharp investit devreme bitcoinRichard Eichberg în øi, în cele din urmæ, Fritz Lang în Starling a instalat toate cele trei filme la Muzeul Ludwig. Nazismul a pus capæt nu doar viselor, øcolilor de artæ øi cæsætoriilor, dar printre milioanele de victime ale sale s-a numærat øi celebrul instalator. Heinz n-a apucat frumoasa vîrstæ de ani la care a decedat sora lui. Starling installed all three movies at the Ludwig Museum.

It was the year when, on the other continent, Muthesius and Leitner had photographed the Indian palace, still in the fullness of its beauty, and Lang moved to Paris, because one of his movies had been adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin by the Nazis. The same year Bauhaus closed, and Joe May immigrated to America with his wife. Eichberg waited until the last moment, inwhen he decided to find refuge in Switzerland. And that some are times favorable to ideas and times favorable to their breaking apart. Nazism not only ended dreams, art schools and marriages; among its victims there was the famous plumber. Heinz never reached the respectable age ofhis sister had when she died. It shows Heinz Riefenstahl respectfully standing in front of the Führer, who smiles at him. The maharajah was kneeled down not by the fire set to the world, but by something else.

First, the premature death of his wife changed his spirits and made him lose interest in art. If ever built, it would certainly start a small religious reform. Brancusi had made several aquarelles and sketches of the project, many of them being borrowed to the exhibition we are talking about by the Pompidou Center in Paris. Its spaces were crammed by documents piling up and a great deal of the fancy furniture ended up in an auction. Starling has documented this spiritual erosion through a photo series: inhe went there to see what has been left of the remarkable work seventy years after its building. According to this website, two adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin them reached an Australian museum and the third one has disappeared — Romanian diplomats are trying to trace it in India. Maharajahul a fost îngenuncheat nu de incendiul care a cuprins lumea, ci de altceva. Acest proiect grandios, reunind toate culturile øi timpurile, ar fi unificat spiritualitatea hindusæ, idealismul modernismului øi spiritualitatea purificatæ, de dincolo de timp a sculpturilor lui Brâncuøi. Printre proiectele care nu se vor mai realiza niciodatæ atîrnæ fotografia idilicæ a perechii suverane, fæcutæ de Man Ray, care nu bænuia încæ nimic despre ruina ce va sæ vinæ.

Doar o idee niciodatæ realizatæ poate evita destinul palatului: dupæ moartea proprietarului, el a devenit sediul Biroului Reprezentantului Regional al Oficiului de Væmi øi Adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin. Traducere de Alexandru Polgár.

Publications aléatoires

Cele trei întrebæri au constituit titlul proiectului, iar de atunci ele sînt cuprinse în numele colectivului vostru curatorial. Experimente în arta iugoslavæ din anii øi ]. WHW is currently curating the 11th Istanbul Biennale The three questions were the title of the project and since then they are implicit in the name of your curatorial collective. How did you come to the idea for this exhibition and how has your collaboration started? The book was published on its th anniversary, and as it went by completely unnoticed we were curious to see if we can trigger a discussion through. Pentru demersul nostru curatorial, articularea problemelor sociale sensibile are un rol-cheie, în special în raport cu contextul local. Încea de-a a aniversare a naøterii lui Nikola Tesla a fost særbætoritæ adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin stil mare. From the curatorial point of view one of our main concerns was how to deal with anniversary of the book of such powerful ideological and political connotation and we decided to problematize it in the existing local context. Thus, the Manifesto functioned as a strong trigger to tranzacționați bitcoin ethereum și litecoin a public debate on the issues of recent history and the exhibition in the end questioned adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin range of social issues, focusing on adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin relations between art and economy.

At the time we started to work on the exhibition we were still mostly in our twenties. Working together was a great and formative experience. From the beginning we were aware that collaboration enables us to do things that adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin of us individually would be able to do: create and influence new spaces and modalities of art production, thus challenging the environment of ossified and closed art institutions in Croatia. That exhibition established most of the aspects of our future curatorial approach: collective way of working, close partnership adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin different organizations, establishing links between different generations of artists as well as building the exhibition around social and political issues which we feel are being swept under the carpet We did a modified version, on the occasion of the rd anniversary of the Communist Manifesto, in Kunsthalle Exnergasse in Vienna in We are still looking forward to the possible opportunity to do another Communist Manifesto exhibition on another anniversary. Your cum să câștigi mai mulți bani prin investiții bitcoin projects as Broadcasting project, dedicated to Nikola Tesla, Adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin, Normalization: dedicated to Nikola Tesla and others, dealt with local daily politics, pointing out the cultural policy dominant in Croatia during the 90s.

Can you tell us something more about those projects? What are in your opinion the specific roles of the curatorial practice in relation to the production of meaning and knowledge at work in the exhibitions and projects? For our curatorial work of key importance is articulating sensitive social issues, especially in relation to the local context. The exhibition Normalization: dedicated to Nikola Tesla, presented in Gallery Nova inin a certain non committed way served as a closure and a case study of our long adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin term investigation of different aspects of normalization processes we have been facing recently.

Nikola Tesla — was a controversial genius scientist; he was a Serb from Croatia who died as American citizen. In the past decades he has been claimed and disowned by Croats, Serbs, Yugoslavs and Americans. Both of our projects dedicated to Nikola Tesla were also a reaction to the fact that during the 90s in Croatia his Serb origins seriously damaged his pârghie de tranzacționare a conturilor sua status as a scientist. Because of the Broadcasting project we did in. We received about 50 proposals from artists, journalists, architects, scientists, designers, students, philosophers, writers etc. We also set up an archive material that made visible dramatic raptures in public reception of Nikola Tesla and its broader social and political background throughout the last 50 years.

The gallery has an important avant-garde tradition from the 60s and 70s and under your direction it has become a platform for supporting critical local and international artistic production. What are in your experience the difference and gap between the institutional and independent curatorial activities and positions? We see ourselves as adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin independent and selforganized team but also as a micro-institution that tries to create institutional space that is more sensitive to the actual needs of the local scene. Being opened and aware of changes of possible answers with time and changing adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin is — we think — part of our responsibility. We can still see many institutions in Croatia not being aware of that, so there is not enough recognition not only of the experiences of the previous generation but also of current attempts of independent initiatives. Beside the legacy of socialism and its consequences you are focusing on the unsolved questions of Croatian modernism. How have you started to search for new terms of discourse, for new readings of modernism in Croatia in postwar period?

The case of Yugoslavia is especially interesting, not only as the only socialist country that cut off relations to the Eastern bloc, as well as relaxing ideological barriers and opening up to the West culturally, but also as a cultural space in which parts of the communist political and cultural elite recognized correspondences between the universalism of modernist art and the universalism of socialist emancipation. Asta nu înseamnæ cæ artiøtii moderniøti erau în mod necesar oameni ai partidului. Acei artiøti nu erau moderniøti pentru cæ erau niøte comuniøti care urmau linia partidului, ci ca moderniøti erau în mod necesar stîngiøti, antifasciøti, socialiøti øi comuniøti. Scopul nu este de a neutraliza sau reconcilia pærerile contrare asupra modernismului, ci de a le. Încercarea de a regîndi critic formatul bienalelor e o provocare inevitabilæ pentru orice curator. That does not mean that modernist artists were necessarily Party men.

In modernist abstraction enlightened communist consciousness saw closeness to universalism of modern emancipatory politics. The first one has a thickness of about 0. The second one, with a thickness of about 0. The beams were pre- served with a diameter of 0. The pits had a cylindrical shape with a diameter of about 0. On the contour of the pits there were found stone slabs that were meant to consolidate the pillars dug in them Niculiţă, Zanoci and Băţfig. The inner space of the fortress, with an area of about 0. On the east side, the defensive system is corrugated adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin forms three semi-oval bastions of × m in size, located at a distance of about 6 m from each other.

In order to clarify the construction tranzacționați bitcoin ethereum și litecoin of the bastions, archaeological investigations were carried out at one of them. The remains of the bastion rep- resented a debris layer 0. It consisted of chernozem mixed with ash and stones with dimensions between 0. After adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin removal of the debris layer, at the depth of about 0. The quasi-cylindrical pits with a diameter of 0. The distance between the rows was about 0. In 3 To the distance of 1 m between the frames is added the average thickness of the beams of 0.

The ditch had a square shape in a section, with a width of 0. Behind it, to protect it from the floods, a ditch for water drainage was dug Niculiţă, Zanoci and Băţ, fig. It was defended with a circular de- fensive system that surrounded an area of about 0. There were three bastions on the north side and three ones on the east side in the defensive line; the bastions were of semi-round shape, with a diameter of about m, the distance between them being about m. In order adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin identify the way of construction of the bastions, archaeological investigations were carried out at one of them. Remains of the bastion were found at a depth of 0. The pits had a diameter of 0. On the outline of a pit, four limestone stones were identified, which probably served to strengthen the pillar.

Behind the remains of the bastion, there was discovered a small ditch dug in the rock, with a width of 0. The quasi-triangular shaped area of about 0. The defensive line on the eastern side includes four half-round bastions with a diameter of about 5 m, at a distance of about 6 m from each other. Four other bastions were found on the northern edge of the promontory. The remains of the bastions at the time of the discovery had a semi- oval shape with the dimensions of 4. To study the technique of construction of the bastions on the northern side, an archaeological section was made on one of them. In the course of investigation there was discovered an agglomeration of stones meas- uring 0. Two of them were arranged on a line oriented east-west, and two others on the north-south axis.

As they were arranged, they were supposed to be part of a de- fensive construction. As a result of the archaeological researches, the remains of a ditch were also found. On the investigated plot it represented a right angle. On the eastern side of the section, the ditch had a length of 3. The ditch had a width of 5 On the investigated area, about 0. The site, with an area of about 28 ha, is lo­ cated on a quasi-polygonal promontory with a relative altitude of 65 m, bounded on adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin sides by gorges with relatively steep slopes Fig. They have arched shape, with an opening of about m. In order to clarify the construction technique and the time of building of the bastions, archaeological research was carried out at the eastern end of the defensive line on the southern side. Remains of the defensive construction ap- peared at a depth of 0. It had a concave shape and was found on a 2. Within the debris there is a large stone 1. Also, among the ruins, at a depth of about 0. It was in the vertical position and was 0. Many pieces of carbonized wood adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin found around it. At the northern end of the debris agglomeration, in the east and west pro- files the traces of two pits from pillars were found. They were about 0. The pits were filled with burnt soil mixed with carbonized wood pigments. Under adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin debris agglomer- ation, over its entire width, a layer of soil, about 0.

From the archaeological situation, it was assumed that the excavated debris represents the ruins of adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin defensive line. It consisted of two rows of pillars. The first is confirmed by the presence of the pits observed in the profile. The second is indicated by the carbonized beam in situ. The distance between the rows is estimated at about 0. The space between the rows of beams was filled with earth and stones. It is not excluded that the exterior surface of this structures had been covered with clay, which is suggested by fragments of burnt clay found in the debris. Bastions located on the perimeter of the fortress. Thus, after studying the placement of the bastions integrated into the de- fense lines, it was observed that they were, in most cases, arranged on the east- ern sides of the fortresses, being oriented towards the Dniester River. They were also found on the edges of the gorges, which go from the Dniester to the interior of the territory. These sectors eastern, southern, and northern of the fortifications were most exposed to possible attacks, which could come from communities living east of the Dniester. The presence of defensive constructions of the bastion type, no matter where they are located, denotes the fact that the Getic communities in the Middle Dniester region had a thorough knowledge in the field of military archi- tecture and strategy.

Chişinău: Cartdidact. Ciobotaru, Valerian. Chişinău: Bons Offices. Adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin N. Glinzhen II. Mnogosloinyi pamiatnik Srednego Podnesnrovia. Tiraspol: Mako. Ivanova, Mariya. Befestigte Siedlungen auf dem Balkan, in der Ägäis und in Westanatolien, ca. Münster: Waxmann. Vestigii traco-getice pe Nistrul Mijlociu. Keeley, Lawrence H. Tyragetia s. Monografie arheologică. Bucureşti: Vavila Edinf. Habitatul din mileniul I a. I, Evoluţia habitatului din microzona Saharna în epoca fierului. Romanovskaia, M. In Noveishie otkryia sovetskih arheologov, II, Sîrbu, Valeriu, and George Trohani. Smirnov, G. Otchetnye materialy po arheologicheskim issledovaniiam Moldavii za gody. Arhiva MNIM, inv. The ten books on architecture. Translated by Tranzactionare de criptomonedele in 2021 Hicky Morgan. Harvard: University press. Zanoci, Aurel. Zanoci, Aurel, and Mihail Băţ. Carpatica Rezumatele comunicărilor, In Iron Age fortifications on the Tisa-Dniestr spase. Chişinău-Brăila: Istros. The specific features of the Getic fortifications in the Middle Dniester region the Saharna and Horodişte-Ţipova micro-zones P L U R A L 31 Particularităţile fortificaţiilor getice din regiunea Nistrului Mijlociu microzonele Saharna şi Horodişte-Ţipova Rezumat: În regiunea Nistrului Mijlociu, în urma cercetărilor de teren, a sonda- jelor şi a cercetărilor arheologice au fost repertoriate 40 de fortificaţii şi 70 aşe- zări deschise, atribuite comunităţilor getice din sec.

IV-III a. În ultimii ani o atenţie sporită a fost acordată cercetării fortificaţiilor din microzonele Saharna 16 situri şi Horodişte-Ţipova 7 situri. În urma cercetărilor de teren şi a inves- tigaţiilor arheologice s-a observat că sistemul defensiv al fortificaţiilor din această regiune are unele particularităţi, care nu sunt atestate la restul cetăţilor getice. Edificarea construcţiilor defensive de tip bastion, ca elemente supli- mentare a fortificaţiilor, denotă merită să investești 50 în bitcoin că comunităţile getice din regiunea Nis- trului Mijlociu posedau cunoştinţe temeinice în domeniul arhitecturii militare. Cuvinte-cheie: regiunea Nistrului Mijlociu, epoca fierului, geţi, fortificaţii, bastioane. The following article assumes that the destruction of settlements and new immigration can be seen in a clearly evident change in ceramic technology and the associated adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin of raw materials.

It adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin assumed that extensive continuities in the production of ceramics require an undisturbed knowledge transfer between the actors, which cannot be the case in a complete new settlement. In particular, this can be traced back to archaeometric analyzes of ceramics, whereby local or non-local sound supply, leaning, sound processing and burning techniques have meaning. For this reason, ceramics of the two cul- tures of two neighboring settlements — Ulmu Ialoveni District, Republic of Moldva — Poieneşti-Lukaşevka culture and Horodca Mică Hânceşti district, Republic of Moldova, Getic culture — were examined for these parameters. Archaeoceramology is a narrow specialist branch of archaeometry dealing with multiple aspects of historical pottery analysis. It includes the analysis of chemical composition, mineralogical and petrographic composition, analysis of physical and mechanical ceramic properties, as well as the estimation of firing temperature and atmosphere and assessment of functional properties.

Com- prehensive analysis of this type can provide insights relating to the provenance of ceramic raw materials and to the technology of ceramic production. Adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin ing ceramic technology is important because differences in know-how are not only indicative of the level of technological knowledge within a given culture or period, but they can also reflect the transfer of technological knowledge at the level of individuals e. Furthermore, geological factors may have dictated that potters based at different ceramic production centers used the same clay as well as the same non-plastic raw materials to make ceramic bod- ies. In this scenario it is only technological analysis that has the potential to identify individual production centers. Pottery found at the Horodca Mică and Ulmu iron age settlements — results of archaeoceramological analysis P L U R A L 33 A standard package of analyses was used cfd brokeri de tranzacționare românia investigate the provenance of 19 pottery fragments found in Ulmu and 15 pottery fragments found in Horodca Mică. The our aim of thin-section studies was to identify the mineralogical-pet- rographic content and cumpărați tranzacționarea cu criptomonede size distribution of the non-plastic clastic com- ponents of the body.

Thin-section analysis can provide only very general in- formation about the matrix owing to the resolution of the microscope, the size of the clay minerals making up the plastic part of the body and the fact that they undergo transformation when fired. When using three analytical methods in provenance studies, pottery groups are determined independently using: MGR analysis, chemical analysis and thin-section studies. Each of these methods yields a different type of clas- sification matrix groups, geochemical groups and clastic sistem de robot de tranzacționare bitcoin groups. Collectively, these three types of classification allow provenance groups to be established, which not only highlight differences in chemical composition but can also demonstrate what these differences are associated with e.

The physical ceramic properties apparent density, open porosity, water ab- sorption of the original pottery fragments were also evaluated. Physical ceramic properties depend on the type of raw material from which the vessel was made, the temperature at which it was fired, how it was formed, and in particular on the method used to de-air the ceramic body, which is very individual to each potter de-airing is a very time-consuming process and as such adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin less susceptible to ran- dom problems. If we have products made of the same ceramic body, formed us- ing the same technique, thoroughly dried and fired at the same temperature, their porosity will be entirely dependent on how well the ceramic body was de-aired. A step by step strategy was adopted for provenance analysis, allowing for a reduction in the number of analyses carried out. All samples underwent MGR-analysis, the results being used as adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin basis for raw material classification, after which samples were selected for chemical analysis. Following further clas- sification, samples were subsequently selected for examination in thin-section. The apparent density, open porosity and water absorption of all sherds was evaluated.

As a result of the methods applied, a number of findings have been reached. Ceramic wares found at both sites were made using a body intentionally tempered with crushed potsherds grog. At both sites pottery was made using similar, non-standardised technology: various amounts of grog temper were used and firing was carried out at various temperatures in an incompletely ox- idizing atmosphere. As the sites differ chronologically this demonstrates a discon- tinuity in raw material use. Taking into consideration the results of MGR-analysis, chemical analysis and thin-section studies it can be concluded that the analysed samples repres- ent wares made at local pottery workshops, except for facetted pot sample no. This sample most probably represents a non-re- gional import. The same might be true of another facetted pot sample sample no.

Interestingly, both sample no. Most of the pottery found in Ulmu 11 of the 19 analysed samples was made from the same raw material MGR This raw material was used to produce coarse GK and fine ware FK as well as facetted pots. This clearly points towards a local production of pottery of all types. Matrix groups that were restricted to the production of facetted bowls MGR-groups 1, 2 and 6 might additionally show a specific selection of raw materials for these particu- lar forms samples no. In summary, the similarities in production between ceramics from the Getic site and the Poienești-Lukașevka-site are clearly visible.

Journal For Studies of Religion and Ideology - NR - 7 | Bharatiya Janata Party | Hindu At all fortifications, the remains of the defen­ sive lines were visually investigated; their outline was fixed with the GPS.

cum să investească în bani buni The only change is connected to a new group of vessel types. From the archaeometric point of view, there is nothing to suggest a lack of continuity in ceramic production traditions. This continuity in technology can be understood as a continuous transmission of knowledge between individuals. We assume that a complete change of population involving a deserted landscape after the end of the Getic settlements and the arrival of new settlers would yield very different results. As the results presented herein are only based on a small adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin of samples it is clear that the interpretation is only of a preliminary nature. Keywords: Pre-Roman Iron Age; Getic culture; Poieneşti-Lukaşevka culture; pottery; archaeoceramology; archaeometry; ceramic technology; MGR-anal­ ysis; thin-section studies; physical ceramic properties. It is assumed that extensive continuities in the production of ceramics require an undis- turbed knowledge transfer between the actors, which cannot be the case in a complete new settlement. In particular, this can be traced adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin to archae- ometric analyzes of ceramics, whereby local or non-local sound supply, lean- ing, sound processing and burning sistem de robot de tranzacționare bitcoin have meaning For this reason, ceramics of the two cultures of two neighboring settlements — Ulmu Adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin District, Republic of Moldva, Romanovskaja and Horodca Mică Mun- teanu, Iarmulschi ; Munteanu et.

The landscape: general characteristics. Speaking broadly from the territorial point of view, we will focus our at- tention on the central forested region Codri in Republic of Moldova, and if we narrow the optics then we will refer to the upper valley of Botna River on the micro-zone in which are located the fortifications Horodca Mare, Horodca Mica and Ulmu settlement Fig.

Codri Region is located in the central part of Moldova Fig. It is a rather hilly relief with a fragmentation depth ranging from m to m, in most landscapes being m. The region is fragmented by valleys of rivers Cula, Ichel, Bâc, Botna and Cogâlnic, but also by other smaller ones that flow into the Prut River. River valleys are well delimited and are deep. In gen- adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin, the right side slopes are steep and affected by landslides, and the left side slopes are gentler and more developed, affected to a much lesser extent by erosion and landslides. In the middle tranzacționare futures bitcoin the forest area we are interested in, the relief is oriented from northwest to southeast, where the altitude decreases Fig. Map indicating the location of the Molda- from to m. These conditions vian Codri and the upper stream of the river Botna. Representative for the vegetation of Codri is the beech Fagus silvat­ icaholm oak Quercus Fig.

The central part of the Republic of Moldova — Codrii. Orthophotomap www. This region is characterized by considerable areas of forest soils with mainly two types sistem de robot de tranzacționare bitcoin brown and gray forest soils and chernozem pod- zolic soils. The investigated micro-region is fragmented by Botna River, which flows from the southern slopes of the central part of Codri Plateau at 4 km southwest of Lozova village, near the village of Horodca Nouă.

Floodplain is generally 0. On the upper course, Botna is adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin narrower, but forms a well defined valley with many opțiuni binare avantage fx flowing from the slopes into Botna. This par- ticular area was chosen by a number of Getae communities, which they used and protected by the two fortifications around Horodca Nouă village.

There- fore, in our focus falls the upper course of Botna River, from its springs up to Ruseştii Noi village. The fortifications of the upper Botna River The existence of fortifications in the upper Botna River course micro-zone see localization in Fig. Short descriptions of these sites can be found in several publications, however no extensive investigation was conducted in the past G. Smirnov,; T. Passek,59; T. Zlatkovskaja,50; V. Lapuşnean,49, Hîncu, Fortifications location Horodca Mare and Horodca Mică.

View from later, the investigations were extended the west. View of the fortifications Horodca Mare and Horodca Mică. View from the South. Horodca Mică fortification is located on the penultimate Botna River ter- race, on the right bank of the river, altitude m in the close vicinity to its sources, on a promontory bordered by two ravines at about m southwest of the last row of houses on the eastern alignment of Horodca Nouă village Hanceşti District Fig. The headland is shaped like a triangle with cut off corners, covering an area of about 1. The ravine is very deep and steep on the west while the slopes get more gentle in the north and Fig. Horodca Mică. View of the defensive system, northeast, however remaining from its inner area. The access ways go though the south-west, south and southeast directions with reinforcements made by the inhabitants of space.

The fortification consists of several defensive elements: wall with ad- jacent ditch, scarp and bastion. The wall was raised in the south and south-east of the headland and represents two broken segments, placed at an Fig. View of curvature of the defense angle of sistem de robot de tranzacționare bitcoin degrees with system and of the bastion from the extra-muros. View of the defensive system from the site. View of the defensive sys- tem from the extra-muros. The fortified segment length in the south is 65 m inside and 75 m outside. The southeastern segment length is 45 m both outside and inside.

The southeast segment is slightly narrower. Its width varies from 25 m in the east and 30 m. The height of the wall varies between 5 and 6. The ad- jacent ditch width is mainly m. In some areas it becomes wider while in others it shrinks. At present, the difference in level between the top of the wall and the wedge of the ditch is 5,2 m. The bastion currently represents a circular mound which has a height of over 9 m from the present footstep level Fig.

There is a ditch on the outside of the bastion which makes a direct connection in the west with the adjacent ditch of the western segment of the fortification. Ditch width is smaller than that of the wall and is 6 m in the west and 9 m in the east. Horodca Mare fortification is situated at the distance of about m north- west from Horodca Mică fortification on the right bank of the river, altitude m. It is separated from the later by a deep ravine whose slopes form the promontories La Hultan on which Horodca Mică fortress is located and La Cetate were discovered remains of Horodca Mare fortification. Horodca Mare. View of the headland from the North-East. Both ravines are sufficiently deep with steep sloped especially in the north and east Fig. The promontory itself is quite large occupying an area of about 32 ha with the site holding a surface of about 8 ha in its northeast part Fig. The precise area of the site can hardly be defined at present because of destructions to the defensive system during the collectivization period when intra-mural territories were part of farming land.

This in- formation may be supplemented by data drawn from the analysis of satellite images Fig. It is true that adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin current size is relatively small and do not allow a clear view, neverthe- Fig. Location of the potential defensive systems. View of the defensive system from the north-eastern part of the promontory. Moreover, these spaces have been studied through field research and a fairly clear picture was obtained about the fortification structure. Thus, balancing the above of mentioned facts the following picture emerges. In the area immediately surrounding Botna River springs, the inhabi­tants from Pre-Roman Iron Age conducted actions that require serious physical, intellec- tual, and material effort in order to fortify two spaces placed at relatively short Fig. Both sites offer perfect vision over the val- ley of Botna and open a wide corridor of movement in areas of hills covered with forests Fig.

Moreover, there is a perfect viewing from each fortress over the other one providing opportunities for communication and coordina- tion of actions of the defenders of these fortifications Fig. It is to men- tion that at the base of Horodca Mare fortification were discovered traces of a synchronous settlement occupying an area estimated to 4 ha which cannot be studied at the moment because of the plantations of plum trees a situation which generally compromises the conservation status of the site. Getae settlements in the upper course of the Botna River We would adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin to mention a number of archaeological monuments dated with La Tène period and located around the two mentioned sites Fig.

Moving eastward from the nest of Getae settlements Fig. Around the village Vasieni were re- corded other two Getae set- tlements: one in the west, at a distance of 2. The last in the array of sites from this area of Botna, is a settlement located at a distance of 1. Thus, along the upper Botna River other 11 open settlements were located, starting straight from the fortification near Horodca Mare. Adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin of them are situ- ated on the right bank of the river, and five — on the left one.

We can notice that the distances between the settlements are not too big, in a way that walks from one to the other did not require much time or effort, thus being assured an easy and continuous communication between the set- tlements. The location altitude for the settlements from Ruseştii Noi and Văsieni those situated in the downside of the micro zone is lower than m. The settlements near Ulmu village are situated at altitudes that are only few bellow m, but those nearby Horodca village are located at higher levels — approximately m. The only settlement situated at a high enough level is the one from the foot of the Horodca Mare fortification — approximately m above sea level, thus being only 40 m lower than the La Cetate promontory and 40 m higher than the Botna River level at its nearest point. Near these sites, wide areas of very high quality farming land have been attested, presenting a comfortable exposure and therefore perfect conditions for practicing agriculture.

The necessary amount of water can be sufficiently provided by the main water artery of the micro zone, as well as the by the mul- tiple streams flowing into the Botna river, this being an additional favorable conditions for practicing land works. To these factors, has to be added the sur- rounding Codri area, which represents an enormous source of wooden raw ma- terial, used in a wide range of activities: from building the living spaces with all its potential annexes and the defensive systems to the confection of vari- ous daily use artifacts. These being given, the communities settled along up- per Botna were provided with sufficient resources for organizing autono­mously their daily life. In the same context, we should note that farther, on the other side of Ruseştii Noi, the Botna valley begins to slightly widen, therefore in the micro region formed by the villages from the lower course of the Botna River, the situations appears to be different, being determined by another kind of circumstances and natural conditions which would be worthy being treated separately, considering that the big number of opened settlements are gravitat- ing around adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin fortifications than those discussed above, such as those from Pojăreni, Hansca and Sociteni.

As a adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin thought, We would like to draw the attention to the Stolniceni site — its particularities classify it among those having a deep spiritual significa- tion and, considering its location, it can be regarded as a sacred place, common for a number of more Getae groups from the upper Botna region, although this situation requires additional research and specifications, their framework rising beyond the purposes set for this work. In this area are known 9 sites attributed to this cultural aspect fig. Another five settlements were recently discovered near the village of Lozova fig. The Ulmu site, the settlement from which ceramic fragments were taken to carry out chemical analyzes is located about 1. On the occasion of the archaeological rescue excavations organized by M. Romanovskaja in were discovered two dwellings? InO. Munteanu resumed the research on the site in order to check whether the settlement of the lake near the locality left untouched spaces covered by the settlement researched by M.

Ro- manovskaja. Regretfully, it seems that the leveling of the land around the lake has destroyed the site, archaeological complexes not being certified, the results being summed up at the collection of a small number of ceramic fragments. Of the two? In one of them, more precisely in adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin deepened dwelling, numbered as L. That is why in the literature it was assumed that this complex is, in fact, a workshop Iarmulschi As for the six pits noted in this site, we mention that they usually had the oval shape in the plan and the right walls. Regarding the chronology of the settlement, we mention that the author of the archaeological investigations dated the site within the boundaries of the end of the III Century BC — the beginning of the I Century BC. Roman- ovskaja, and V. Iarmulschi placed the functioning of this settlement between the middle of the century II and the first half of the century I BC Iar- mulschi47; Iarmulschi Archaeoceramological analysis As we said above, archaeoceramological analysis was carried adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin on pottery recovered from excavations at the Iron Age settlements of Horodca Mică and 1 Ina water reservoir was set up in that place. Archaeoceramology is a narrow specialist branch of archaeometry2 deal- ing with multiple aspects of historical pottery analysis. It includes the analysis of chemical composition, mineralogical and petrographic composition, analysis of physical and mechanical ceramic properties, as well as the estimation of fir- ing temperature and atmosphere and assessment of functional properties.

A standard package of analyses3 was used adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin investigate the provenance of 19 pottery fragments found in Ulmu and 15 pottery fragments found in Horodca Mică. MGR-analysis Matrix Group by Refiring was applied in order to de- termine the composition of the ceramic matrix. Matrix types can be identified using this analytical method because of the fact that the thermal behavior of the plastic components during firing is governed by their chemical and phase composition DaszkiewiczDaszkiewiczDaszkiewicz and Schneider After the sherds are refried at a higher temperature than their original firing temperature i. MGR-analysis made it possible to divide the examined pottery into groups of sherds made of the same plastic raw material. Archaeometrical analysis is carried out on historical materials, including both artefacts and natural products recovered from excavation. Daszkiewicz, G. Schneider and E. Bobryk in analysing the provenance and some aspects of technology of ancient ceramics. This analysis enabled the quantity of major and trace elements in on-line demo de tranzacționare valutar body to be es- tablished, revealing the geochemical characteristics of the raw materials used, although the phases in which individual elements occur could not be deter­ mined5 giving the major elements as oxides6 is standard procedure in geo- chemistry when presenting the results of chemical analysis.

The main aim of thin-section studies was to identify the mineralogic- al-petrographic content and grain size distribution of the non-plastic clastic components of the body. Thin-section analysis can provide only very general information about the matrix owing to the resolution of the microscope, the size of the clay minerals making up the plastic part of the adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin and the fact that they undergo transformation when fired. The physical ceramic properties apparent density, open porosity, water absorption of the original pottery fragments were also evaluated. Physical ceramic properties depend on the type of raw material from which the vessel was made, the temperature at which tranzacționarea bitcoin instituțională was fired, how it was formed, and in particular on the method used to de-air the ceramic body, which is very indi- vidual to each potter de-airing is a very time-consuming process and as such is less susceptible to random problems.

If we have products made of the same ceramic body, formed using the same technique, thoroughly adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin and fired at the same temperature, their porosity will be entirely dependent on how well the 5 For example Ca content identified by chemical analysis may be adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin to, for example, inclusions of calcite or dolomite or anorthite, or may occur exclusively in clay fraction in the matrix.

A step by step strategy was adopted for provenance analysis, allowing for a reduction in the number of analyses carried out8. Thus, there is no doubt that this sample belongs to a different MGR-group. All ceramic samples attributed to the same MGR- group were made of the same clay, or of the same ceramic body where inten- tional temper was not added. List of analysed samples and the results of MGR-analysis. In addition, 28 samples also exhibited bloating BLmeaning that the sample expanded in volume. In five samples slight bloating occurred which did not affect the entire sample, but only its irregularly arranged small parts A combination of two different matrix types was also observed in one sample with a slightly over-melted matrix type and some parts with a melted matrix type sample no. The first four exhibit the same thermal behaviour after refiring at each of the three temperatures they belong to the same MGR-group: this means that they are made from the same claythe fifth sample differs distinctly from the rest different MGR-group, different clay. Graphic preparation: Hanna Baranowska. One sample Ulmu, sample no. Different colours and shades can be distinguished adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin this category of matrix.

Winston Churchill - Wikipedia Dar asta nu înseamnæ cæ scriu ca sæ-i fiu pe plac sau sæ o sprijin. Therefore, neither does he cause violence to others nor does he make others do so Acarangasutra 5.

These samples were classified as being made of an NC cc Fig. Example of two samples made of non- raw material i. The top sample features an area coloured by iron compounds enriched with a sizeable portion of calcareous clay the gre- enish-yellowish part in the middle. The adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin with carbonates in clay fraction. Only sample features a temper of sand-sized carbon­ one sample sample no. Graphic preparation: Hanna Baranowska trix, but this did not result in the sample being reclassified to the MX mixed matrix category. Some NC cc samples fea- ture a temper of carbonates in sand fraction or even single gravel-sized grains which causes the matrix to splinter after refiring14 Fig.

In contrast to the NC cc samples, in the NC samples carbonates are not visible macroscopically. Pottery fragments found in Ulmu representing MGR-groups 1—6. None of the MGR-groups are represented at both sites. Eleven of these 19 samples represent MGR-group 4. Distinctive samples from Ulmu include sample adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin. Pot- tery fragments recovered tranzacționați bitcoin ethereum și litecoin Horodca Mică Fig. The most numerously represented is MGR-group 7 four samples. These samples exhibit distinctly different thermal behaviour to all other samples found at this site. Sample no. The results of MGR-analysis demonstrate that, based on shade and surface sheen, the prevalent samples among those found in Ulmu 17 of 19 samples be- longing to MGR-groups 1, 2, 4 and 5 can be distinguished from most of the samples found at Horodca Mică 10 of 15 samples, MGR-groups 8, 10— Red is absent in samples from Ulmu after refiring, while samples from Horodca Mică have a shinier surface tab.

Figures 20 and 21 show samples before refiring original samples in the same order as in figures 18 tranzactionare de criptomonedele in 2021 It is often difficult to distinguish between clay lumps associated with poorly homogenised clay bodies and grog in sherds made of the same raw material. Pottery fragments found at both sites feature various quantities of clay lumps and grog of adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin sizes, even among sherds belonging to the same MGR-group see, for example, fig. MGR-analysis indicates that grog consisted both of crushed sherds made from the same raw material as the ceramic body to which it was added as well as crushed pottery made from different raw materials. Before refiring, the source of the grog cannot be definitively identified; however, after refiring differences become manifest in different thermal behaviour. For example, in figure 19 25 grog made from crushed sherds attributable to MGR-groups 4 and 9 is clearly visible in sample no. Samples before refiring original samples displayed in the same order as in figure 4 Graphic preparation: Hanna Baranowska. Samples adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin refiring original samples displayed in the same order as in figure 5 Graphic preparation: Hanna Baranowska. Pottery found at the Horodca Mică and Ulmu iron age settlements — results of archaeoceramological analysis P L U R A L 57 Figures 20 and 21 clearly show that it is difficult to determine diagnostic parameters that would allow for a correlation between MGR-groups and a mac- roscopic assessment of wares based on analysis of the original samples.

Once MGR classification had been completed, samples were selected for chemical analyses. Only samples attributed to one MGR-group and belonging to the same non-plastic material group were made from the same body the same plastic and non-plastic material and have the same chemical composition. This means that two sherds made of the same clay will only appear in two different chemical clusters if an intention- ally added temper is present in one of the samples. For this reason, when selecting samples for chemical composition analysis, both the matrix group and the macro- scopically visible non-plastic particles of the sherds were taken into account.

When both the results of MGR-analysis and chemical analysis are known this allows for adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin correct interpretation of chemical clusters deriving from multivariate statistics, as a multivariate cluster analysis is based on the content of investiție alternativă bitcoin within a given sample regardless of what phase they occur in. Fur- thermore, thanks to the results of chemical analysis15 MGR-groups can be sor- ted into groups distinguished by similar geochemical parameters, hence into provenance groups. Based on MGR-analysis results, 24 samples were selected for chemical compos- ition analysis, the results of which are presented in table 2, divided into sites and MGR-groups. Looking at the content of key elements in determining provenance, samples from both sites are very similar in their chemical composition, with one ex- ception Ulmu, sample no. In 23 of the sherds chromium Cr levels range from to ppm, nickel Ni content ranging from 52 to 82 ppm Fig.

Magnesium Mg content calculated as MgO ranges from 2. For a detailed description of the problems concerning chemical analysis of ancient ceramics see Daszkiewicz and Schneider Lavoro on line per architetti analysis by pXRF is a good classification tool, but cannot be used for precisely determining chemical composition and establishing reference groups, partic­ ularly when the differences in chemical composition are small as is the case, for example, with pottery from Ulmu and Horodca Mică. Chromium content Cr, in ppm versus Fig. Strontium content Sr, in ppm versus nickel content Ni, in ppm Graphic preparation: calcium content CaO, in wt. Graphic pre- Hanna Baranowska.

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Titanium Ti calculated as TiO2 ranges from 0. The greatest differ- ences were noted in the concentrations of calcium Ca and strontium Srwhich is geochemically correlated with calcium. Only one sample from Horodca Mică has an Sr content of over ppm, and adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin two samples from Ulmu have a lower one Fig. The sample in question is the aforementioned no. In the dendrogram presenting the results of mul- tivariate cluster analysis16 this sample forms a separate cluster cluster no.

Separate clusters clusters 1 and 2 are also formed by two other samples nos. Cluster 3, with one exception, is made up of samples from Ulmu attributed to MGR-group 4 six of the seven samples comprising this MGR-group. Cluster 4 consists of samples from Ulmu as well as Horodca Mică, though the samples from these sites exhibit a slight tendency to divide adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin sub-clusters. Cluster 6 is represented by the only sample attributed to MGR-group 10 sample no. The results of cluster analysis do not fully coincide with those of MGR-analysis.

Journal For Studies of Religion and Ideology - NR - 7

In the dendro- gram, sample no. The loading plot Fig. Dendrogram presenting the results of multivariate cluster analysis. Results of principal components ana- Fig. Thin-sections were made from seven sherds, four of them found at the Ulmu site and three at the site in Horodca Mică. Studies of the thin-sections under a polarising microscope revealed that in general all of the samples are fairly similar in terms of the type, adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin and size of non-plastic particles. Grains of quartz representing natural inclusions are the predominate non- plastic material in all of the samples. Clay lumps and grog are also observed in all of the samples Fig. CaO levels identified by chemical analysis are associated with the presence of carbonates in the matrix Fig. That is, its solutions would carry weight because of their inherent persuasiveness coming from their adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin and spiritual insight and wisdom. Therefore, it should be anthropo-centric, indeed more, it must be anthropo-cosmo-centric, for we can not be fully human except within the context of the whole of reality. The affirmations should be dynamic in form in the sense that they will be susceptible to being sublated aufgehobenthat is, they might properly be reinterpreted by being taken up into a larger framework. The Declaration needs to set inviolable minimums, but also open-ended maximums to be striven for; but maximums may not be required, for it might violate the freedom-minimums of some persons.

It could well start with - though not limit itself to - elements of the so-called Golden Rule : Treat others as we would be treated. Only Law Universal is true Law Gathas, The Declaration should use language and images that are acceptable to all major religions and ethical groups; hence, its language ought to be humanity-based, rather than from authoritative religious books; it should be from below, not from above. Confucius also stated in a variant version: What I do not wish others to do to me, that also I wish not to do to them Analects, 5. One who you think should be hit is none else but you Therefore, neither does he cause violence to others nor does he adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin others do so Acarangasutra 5. Here am I fond of my life, not wanting to die, fond of pleasure and averse from pain. Suppose someone should rob me of my life If I in turn should rob of his life one fond of his life How could I inflict that upon another? Samyutta Nikaya v. Mahabharata, states that its Golden Rule, which is expressed in both positive and negative form, is the summary of all Hindu teaching, the whole Dharma: Vyasa says: Do not to others what you do not wish JSRI N o. Again: No man is a true believer unless he desires for his brother that which he desires for himself.

Treat humanity in every case as an end, cum tranzacționează oamenii bitcoins as a means only. In the teachings he left behind are found variants of the Golden Rule: Be right yourself before you correct others. Instruct yourself first before you teach others. Do favors for others before you seek favors from them. Adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin people may appear smart in doing things only for themselves, but they are really suffering a loss. Buddhas and Bodhisattvas may appear to be stupid in doing things only for others, but eventually they benefit themselves. On the contrary, it tends to make concern for the authentic ego the measure of altruism. Do not foster the ego more than the alter; care for the alter as much as for the ego. To abolish egoism is to abolish altruism also; and vice versa. This, however, is the last and highest stage of human development. It is the stage of the w holy person, the saint, the arahat, the bodhisattva, the sage. Such a stage cannot be the foundation of human society; it must be the goal of it. The foundation of human society must be first authentic self-love, which includes moving outward to loving others. Not recognizing this foundation of authentic selflove tranzacționarea algoritmului criptomonede the fundamental flaw of those idealistic systems, such as communism, that try to build a society on the foundation of altruism.

A human and humanizing society should lead adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin w holiness, toward altruism, but it cannot be built on the assumption that its citizens are w holy and altruistic to start with. Such an altruism must grow out of an ever developing authentic selflove; it cannot be assumed, and adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin it cannot be forced as has been tried for decades - with disastrous dehumanizing results.

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  • Cluster 4 consists of samples from Ulmu as well as Horodca Mică, though the samples from these sites exhibit a slight tendency to divide into sub-clusters.
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  • One goal of the richer countries should be the clearly oriented help which induces new little initiatives or small enterprises in the particular country of the Third World.

As humans ineluctably seek ever more knowledge, truth, so too they seek to draw what they perceive as the good to themselves that is, they love. Usually this self is expanded to include the family, and then friends. It needs to continue its natural expansion to the community, nation, world and cosmos, and the source and goal of all reality. Another aspect of the Golden Rule is that humans are always to be treated as cum să devii bogat într-o săptămână, never as mere means, i. Yet another implication of the Golden Rule is that those who cannot protect themselves ought to be protected by those who can. A further ring of the expanding circles of the Golden Rule is that non-human beings are adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin to be reverenced and treated with respect because of their being. It is important that not only basic but also middle ethical principles be spelled out in this Declaration. Although most of the middle ethical principles that need to be articulated in this Declaration are already embedded in juridical form in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, it is adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin that the religions and ethical traditions expressly state and approve them. Then the alpari brokeri de forex, including both adherents and outsiders of the various religions and ethical traditions, will know what ethical standards all are committing themselves to.

If a Universal Declaration of a Global Ethic is to be meaningful and effective, however, its framers must resist the temptation to pack too many details and special interests into it. It can function best as a kind of constitutional set of basic and middle ethical principles from which more detailed applications can be constantly be drawn. A plan of action Such general suggestions need to be discussed, confirmed, rejected, modified, supplemented. Beyond that, it is vital that all the disciplines contribute what from their perspectives ought to be included in the Declaration, how that should be formulated, what is to be avoided - and this is beginning to happen. The year was the th anniversary of the World Parliament of Religions which adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin place in Chicago and marked the beginning of what became world-wide interreligious dialogue. As a consequence, a number of international conferences took place and in the center of them was the launching and developing of a Universal Declaration adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin a Global Ethic. Declaration Toward a Global Ethic, which the Parliament adopted.

Its second meeting was held December, in Naples in conjunction with the Instituto Italiano degli Studii Filosofici. More recently Professor Kng drafted a third text also contained in this volumethis time within the context of the InterAction Council, entitled A Universal Declaration of Human Responsibilities. All three of these texts have been subjected to numerous consultations and comments by scholars and thinkers from multiple philosophical, religious and other backgrounds. It is vital that we study this matter seriously, but we also need to act. We must not dally, for the changes in the world are mounting not only in arithmetic but in geometric fashion. On the other hand, a document merely handed down from above will lack the ownership of those who it is to influence and guide. In this matter we can learn from the methodology employed by the Earth Charter Project headquartered in Costa Rica and chaired by Professor Steven Rockefeller. They did indeed initially prime the pump with textual input from leading scholars and thinkers, but have then put their bread out on the water of a vast network of Non-Governmental Organizations NGOsreligious, secular, political and semi-political organizations and individuals, urging them to bring insights and formulations up from below, which the headquarters is then synthesizing.

To summarize: It is imperative that various religious and ethical communities, ethnic groups and geographical regions work on discussing and drafting their own versions of a Universal Declaration of a Global Ethic, that is, what they consider their own basic ethical principles, which they at the same time believe people of all other religious and ethical traditions could also adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin. The three already existing drafts should certainly be made use of in this process. But all communities and regions need to make their own contributions to the final Declaration, and in the process of wrestling with the issue and forging the wording, they will make the concern for a global ethic their own, and will thus better be able to mediate it to their constituents and enhance the likelihood of the Declaration in fact being adhered to in practice.

The ideas and sensitivities must also come from the grassroots. Moreover, it is also at the grassroots, as well at the levels of scholars and leaders, that, first, consciousnesses must be raised on the desperate need for the conscious development of a Global Ethic, and then once drafted and accepted, the conviction of its JSRI N o. The most carefully thought out and sensitively crafted Declaration will be of no use if those who are to adhere to it do not believe in it.

A Global Ethic must work on all three levels: scholars, leaders, grassroots. Otherwise it will not work at all. Hence, I urge:! We confirm and applaud the positive human values that are, at times painfully slowly, but nevertheless increasingly, being accepted and advocated in our world: In sum, having studied, listened and thought, I chal- freedom, equality, democracy, recognition of interdependence, commitment to justice and human rights. We lenge us all to take up this vital task and act! Therefore we advocate ETHIC movement toward a global order that reflects the best values found in our myriad traditions. We are convinced that a just global order can be built only upon a global ethic which clearly states uniI.

RATIONALE versally-recognized norms and principles, and that such an ethic presumes a readiness and intention on the part We women and men from various ethical and religious traditions commit ourselves to the following Uni- of people to act justly - that is, a movement of the heart. We speak here not Secondly, a global ethic requires a thoughtful presentation of principles that are held up to open investigation of ethics in the plural, which implies rather great detail, but of ethic in the singular, i. Each of our traditions holds commitments beyond toward good and evil, and the basic and middle prinwhat is expressed here, but we find that within our ethiciples needed to put it into action. We find in each of our traditions: ner. Furthermore, none of our traditions, ethical or religious, is satisfied with minimums, vital as they are; rather, because humans are endlessly self-transcending, our traditions also provide maximums to be striven for.

Consequently, this Declaration does the same. The maximums, however, clearly are ideals to be striven for, and therefore cannot be required, lest the essential freedoms and rights of some thereby be violated. In conjunction with that first United Nations Declaration we believe there are five general presuppositions which are indispensable for a global ethic: a Every human possesses inalienable and inviolable dignity; individuals, states, and other social entities are obliged to respect and protect the dignity of each person.

In brief: this Declaration, in reflection of reality, is not just anthropocentric, but cosmo-anthropo-centric. Because freedom is of the essence of being hu5. Thus true human love is authentic self-love and man, every person is free to exercise and develop every other-love co-relatively linked in such a way that ulticapacity, so long as it does not infringe on the rights of mately it is drawn to become all-inclusive. This expanother persons or express a lack of due respect for things sive and inclusive adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin of love should be recognized living or non-living. In addition, human freedom should as an active principle in personal and global interaction. Those who hold responsibility for others are dom of all humans and due respect for all things, living obliged to help those for whom they hold responsibility. In addition, adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin Golden Rule implies: If we were in seri2. Because of their inherent equal adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin, all huous difficulty wherein we could not help ourselves, we mans should always be treated as ends, never as mere would want those who could help us to do so, even if means. In addition, all humans in every encounter with they held no responsibility for us; therefore we should others should strive to enhance to the fullest the intrin- help others in serious difficulty who cannot help themsic dignity of all involved. Although humans have greater intrinsic value 7.

Because all humans are equally entitled to hold than non-humans, all such things, living and non-living, their religion or belief - i. In addition, dialogue - i. As humans necessarily seek ever more truth, so means whereby women and men learn to respect the too they seek to unite themselves, that is, their selves, other, ceaselessly to expand and deepen their own exwith what they perceive as the good: in brief, they love. At the same time, all individuals and communities should follow all just laws, obeying not only the letter but most especially the spirit.

At the same time, all humans should exercise their rights of freedom of thought, speech, conscience and religion or belief in ways that will respect themselves and all others and strive to produce maximum benefit, broadly understood, for both themselves and their fellow humans. At the same time everyone should avoid cover-ups, distortions, manipulations of others and inappropriate intrusions into personal privacy; this freedom and responsibility is especially true of the mass media, artists, scientists, politicians and religious leaders. At the same time, all humans should strive to exercise their right, and obligation, to participate in self-governance as to produce maximum benefit, widely understood, for both themselves and their fellow humans. At the same time, all men and women should act toward each other outside of and within marriage in ways that will respect the intrinsic dignity, equality, freedom and responsibilities of themselves and others. Because humans are free, bodily and social in nature, all individual humans and communities have the right to own property of various sorts. At the same time, society should be so organized that property will be dealt with respectfully, striving to adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin maximum benefit not only for the owners but also for their fellow humans, as well as for the world at large.

At the same time, all individuals have an obligation to work appropriately for their recompense, and, with all communities, to strive for ever more creative work and re-creative leisure for themselves, their communities, and other individuals and communities. Because humans can become authentically human only through education in the broad sense, and today increasingly can flourish only with extensive education JSRI N o. At the same time, all individuals and communities have the obligation to contribute appropriately to providing the means necessary for this education for themselves and their communities, and beyond that to strive to provide the same for all humans. At the same time, it should be recognized that peace, like liberty, is a positive value which should be At the same time, all individuals and communities should constantly be vigilant to protect our fragile universe, particularly from the exploding human population and increasing technological possibilities which threaten it in an ever expanding fashion. Since the middle of the nineteenth century Eastern thought has become increasingly better known in the West, and proportionately influential. This knowledge and influence appears to be increasing geometrically in recent decades. It is even beginning to move into the hardest of our so-called hard sciences, nuclear physics, as evidenced by the popular book of the theoretical physicist Fritjof Capra, The Tao of Physics Boulder, CO: Shambhala, 2nd ed.

For the. Author adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin the books: Arbeit und Wertewandel im postmodernen Deutschland: Eine historisch, ethischsystematische Studie zum Berufs- und ArbeitsethosThe common good in our changing worldAllianz fr den Sonntag In a speech at the Independence Hall in Philadelphia Pennsylvania held on 4th of July when he was awarded with the Peace Medal, President Vaclav Havel has exemplified the meaning of the postmodern age as follows: a Bedouin, sitting on a camel, wearing jeans under his traditional clothes, drinking Coke and listening to a walkman with a Coca-Cola ad stuck onto the camel. True indeed. Closed cultures are breaking up and become westernized, and along with this development many ecological and social problems have occurred. From the standpoint of the given example, we could ask, where did the Bedouin get all this? Where can he recycle his empty tins? Let us discuss these social and ecological difficulties. Our postmodern adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin is characterized by changes of values and viewpoints, kinds of labour, flexibility and mobility, mix of cultures, ethnic conflicts and new alliances. Something is going towards an end like the planned market economy of communismother new things are coming into existence by the painful process adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin trial and error.

Concern of ecological aspects The term ecology is defined as the scientific study of cum să tranzacționați litecoin pentru bitcoin pe binance interactions that determine the territorial distribution and abundance of organisms. Each living species is assigned its own proper place in nature; its own specific type of food, geographical range, and population, within a harmonious pattern of interdependence between the different species. Modern ecology is centrally concerned with the cycling of nutrients through ecosystems, and with patterns of energy flow and interchange. The concept of ecosphere means that the planet is considered as an immensely complex global system of ecosystems. The shift from metaphorical to direct, literal application of ecological concepts to human social life was established only in the s, following the globalization of the ecological perspective in the form of the concept of the ecosphere. If we take out one factor of the natural circle of the environment, we are going to lose our ecological balance. The catastrophe of Tschernobyl in showed that it is not only a matter concerning the Ukraine or Russia but also other parts in the world as well.

Similarly, pollution in the Third World should consider our thinking, too. The problem of globalization This is the process whereby the population of the world is increasingly bounded into a single society. Globalization as term came only into wide use in the s. The changes it refers to are highly charged politically, and the concept is controversial because it suggests that the creation of a world society is no longer the project of a hegemonic nation-state but the undirected outcome of social interaction on a global scale. The term has established itself in fields as diverse as economics, geography, marketing and sociology, which suggests that its use is more than a matter of passing fashion.

Culture and market combined in the s in the activities of multinational corporations seeking to maximize the worldwide sales of products through global advertising. Globalization is attacked by those who see it as a new form of homogenization of culture, an extension of the mass culture which ironed out the variety of nineteenthcentury local European cultures. The sense of a common fate for humanity is enhanced by recognition adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin global environmental issues, and political activism increasingly crosses national boundaries with the worldwide mobilization of social movements.

Guidelines for international business activity Economic factors exert a profound and lasting influence on the life of all human beings. They can en This adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin in particular to the effects of the international business activities of companies in areas where different cultures meet. Therefore, the responsibility of business goes beyond adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin entrepreneurial concerns and extends to primary human and social values.

The first and most important principle is that of responsibility. It is much better for countries in the Third World to get fair trade conditions with partners from the northern hemisphere than getting gifts. One goal of the richer countries should be the clearly oriented help which induces new little initiatives or small enterprises in the particular country of the Third World. Business activities are governed by the respective national legislation. Companies should co-operate in fighting corruption and they should also observe the principle of non-interference in the political affairs of a host country, because their very economic presence has effects on man and society. Therefore, co-operations with national authorities and local economy should be conducted in the spirit of fairness and good faith. In fulfilling their responsibilities, especially in economically underdeveloped countries, companies should orient their activities towards a development beneficial to all people concerned. Companies should inform the public about their activities and the economic and social consequences in a acum am devenit bogat consistent with their social importance. Dominating market positions should not be misused to the detriment of the economy of the host country or of its development.

Decisions concerning. Solidarity and subsidiarity The basic notion of solidarity comprises interrelated connection and duty. It has its foundation in the human dignity of each individual and the social tendency of being with others, and also the need of other people. Solidarity is an ontic and ethical principle. And in the global sense we can say that we are responsible for one another. The individual is only thinkable as a dialogical being and therefore in need of solidarity. This idea is particularly important in the postmodern age and in the context of the philosophical thinking of existentialism which often fails to see it. Individuals grow in encounter with others, in interrelated service and dialogue with sisters and brothers. Solidarity is a responsible and loving acceptance by a person based on the fact of human interdependence on the global scale today, based on the fact that ones own life and the lives of the adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin others whom one never comes to know personally are intertwined for good and for ill. The principle of subsidiarity requires that the state leaves to individuals and intermediate bodies what they are able to achieve by their own capabilities and inter.

CA Solidarity adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin expressed by the love of the other. In a very concise way love of neighbour has been defined as willing the good of another. Willing the good of another means first of all to accept and appreciate the good endowments a neighbour possesses as natural gifts or as acquired facilities. It also means wishing him the good which he ought to possess and to develop or perhaps regain. But merely wishing good to another is not enough where one is in a condition to actually help him. One must also commit oneself to tranzacționați bitcoin ethereum și litecoin active protection of the good endowments of the other and work for the restoration or promotion of what is lacking in goodness according to ones possibilities.

Integrating these various aspects, love of neighbour could be defined as the sincere esteem for ones neighbours gifts of body and soul and their active protection and furtherance in accordance with his calling by God. The neighbours to be loved include adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin men, relatives and outsiders, nationals and foreigners, friends and enemies, individuals and groups, the families, communities and nations. Love of self, rightly understood and not in the egoistic sensecalls for the realization of the same objectives as love of neighbour and is motivated by the same motives. God wills his likeness in us as much as he wills it in our neighbour. Again, love of self has to realize the same objectives as adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin pointed out in love of neighbour: acceptance of oneself tranzacționare cu criptomonede etoro promotion of ones divinely willed growth in accordance with ones JSRI N o.

Love must be interior, i. It must sistem de robot de tranzacționare bitcoin active by an effective concern for the welfare of other. The political thrust of love orients the ethos towards social horizons. Another, most indispensible quality of love appears to be humble, reverent respect for the person or community who is loved and helped. Justice in the world Evaluations of the basic and political institutions, particularly with respect to the consequent distributions of benefits and burdens, are standardly expressed in terms of justice and injustice.

Justice is often held to be the priority social value which overrides all other normative considerations. In its most general sense the concept of justice requires that each individual have what is due to him or her. Within this formula we may distinguish formal and material justice. Formal justice requires distribution which are in accordance with existing or agreed criteria or rules. It is often identified with legal or individual justice. Material or substantive justice concerns the identification of the appropriate distributive criteria such as rights, need or choice that constitute competing conceptions of justice. John Rawls argues in his Theory of Justice that the principles for determining the basic institutions of a sistem de robot de tranzacționare bitcoin which would be chosen in a procedurally The justice question is linked to the human rights. Realities of political life often do not correspond with the pledges made by the declarations of human rights and not seldom stand in glaring contrast to them.

Nevertheless the recognition of a common moral authority is in itself a reason for hope. The Church considers it as her prophetic mission to defend justice and right in the social, national and international domain and to denounce injustice where the basic rights of man and his salvation require it. The Church, especially today, is judged by her own practice. The Churchs prophetic defence of human rights can only be credible if she herself is perceived by others to be just and merciful. Her service to human rights thus pledges her to a constant examination of conscience and a continuous purification and renewal of her own life, her own laws, institutions and conduct. The service that the Church can perform for the realization of human rights consists not merely in verbal appeals, however important they may be, but also in setting an example herself by doing right. Least of all by the Church must the thirst for justice and the yearning for humanity in our world be disappointed. The concept of values We live in a time of competition of interests and values i.

Therefore, let us look adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin the values, its means and its different understandings. The term values may refer to interests, pleasures, likes, duties, moral adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin, desires, wants, attractions and many other modalities of selective orientations. Values are found in the large and diverse universe of selective behavior. The limits of value may be conceived very broadly or quite narrowly, but the limits should never be arbitrarily set, and their location ought to be justified in any particular case. Values regulate impulsive satisfaction in accord with the whole array of hierarchical enduring goals adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin personality, the requirements of both personality and sociocultural system for order, the need for respecting the interests of others and the group as a whole in social living. Values serve as criteria for selection in action, and they become criteria for judgement, preference and adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin.

In ordinary speech the term value is used in two senses: in one meaning, we refer to the specific evaluation of any object. Here we are told how an object is rated or otherwise appraised, adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin not what standards are used to make the judgements. The second meaning of value refers to the criteria, or standards in terms of which evaluations are made. Value-as-criterion is usually the more important usage for purposes of social scientific analysis. It is often difficult in specific instances to Needs derive from deficiency or disruption. Desires are wishes or appetitions directed toward certain objects and states. Values are not motives. A given value may have a strength that is relatively independent of any particular motive. Some values are freedom, equality, honesty, humanitarianism, authority. Most of them are questioned today, because the standards and evaluations are not clear enough. There is a main problem: many tranzactionarea de alte monede are multivalued, relating simultaneously, for example, to hedonic criteria, considerations of efficiency, and values of social integration. Values enter into each of the four great systems human action: organism, personality, society and culture. Both philosophical analysis and social science often fall into serious error by paying attention to a single kind of value while ignoring or underestimating others.

I gave this philosophical consideration, because the awareness of differences in other cultures is a presupposition for dealing with people from different continents. On the one hand, we are changing not only our behavior in the Second Worldbut our value system as well. So that it seems helpful to me thinking about roots and backgrounds tranzactionare de criptomonedele in 2021 values. On the other hand, dealing with other cultures means knowing the system of the brother or sister. Contextual analysis is a necessary corrective in comparisons.

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Health, security, wealth, enjoyment, faith in the supernatural, knowledge, and other values that figure prominently in the value systems of many cultures are similar in name only. Context is needed also to locate value judgements that do not contain explicit value terms, the counterparts in other languages of the English That simply is not done! Verbal explanation as well as context is needed to understand profit criptare miniere găzduire signs of evaluation, including sanctions. Not every spanking is a punishment. Not every smile is a sign of joy: it may only express incomprehension. Since no value system is a perfect fit to life conditions, each contains socially acceptable alternatives to formally established principles. These secondary rules and norms permit individuals to come to terms with reality without running afoul of society. Cross-cultural adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin is perhaps the most promising single factor for refining and enriching our comprehension of cultural value systems. Democracy as precondition for a stable society The term democracy is difficult to define, not only because it is vague, like so many political terms, but more importantly, because what one person would regard as a typical example or paradigm case another would deny was a democracy at all.

However, there is still this much agreement: democracy consists in government by the people or popular self-government. Obviously, the conditions of face-to-face democracy, with direct participation, cannot be fulfilled within The idea of making decisions raises the difficulty of how many different individual decisions can be combined into one collective decision. A decision by the whole people amounts to something more than a decision by the majority and must involve compromise and consensus. Near universality of approval is a salient feature of democracy today. The other key feature is that modern democracies are indirect or adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin rather than direct. The dominant form of democracy today is liberal democracy.

The term liberal applied to governmental systems usually implies a concern with protecting individual freedoms by limiting the power of the government which is until today one of the biggest problems in the Second and Third World, where governments are still too powerful and often enough, they dont have political oppositions.

Another feature of democracy is equality. There is a connection between the ideas of democracy and equality because, apart from anything else, the idea of the whole people making a decision involves the notion summed up in the slogan one man, one vote -of each individual having an equal say. On the other hand, the notion of liberal democracy is usually associated with important ideas about further kinds of political structures and processes that adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin necessary for limiting governmental power and providing electoral choice.

These can be seen as components in the overall idea of pluralism. The one-party systems adam sharp investit adam sharp investit devreme bitcoin bitcoin the former communist world and of many Third World countries are no alternative to the liberal and democratic system of the western world. Another difficulty is the undemocratic tribalism in many countries all over the world, but particularly in the southern hemisphere.

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